University of San Diego, Kern County

Theories & Methods In English Language Development and Content For The

Classroom Teacher - Educ. X558Y

Course Syllabus


Course Description

This course is one of the four CLAD courses designed to prepare teachers for the CLAD state examination, or one of four courses that meets the requirement for the CLAD Certificate.  Students will examine the foundations of bilingual education in the United States.  The course is also a survey of the historical development of bilingual education , and it examines the political, legal and philosophical aspects of bilingual education.  English development pedagogy and Specially Designed Academic Instruction principles will also be explored.  The course also provides an overview of issues and strategies involved in second language (English) development and content assessment. 


Students in this course will develop sensitivity to multicultural populations, and they will become more knowledgeable about the theories and methods of bilingual education.  Students will also develop knowledge about theories and methods for instruction in and through English.  Students will also become knowledgeable regarding language and content area assessment.


Each student in this course will:

1.      describe the foundations of bilingual education which include an understanding of its’ historical background, its’ legal evolution, and an understanding of perspectives on empowerment / deficit issues.

2.      describe programs for limited English proficient students including types of programs, program characteristics, instructional strategies, and a theoretical framework of reference for intercultural effectiveness.

3.      explain and describe teacher delivery for both English language development and content instruction.

4.      describe approaches with a focus on English language development.

5.      explain communication elements of listening, speaking, reading and writing.

6.      explain approaches with a focus on content area instruction (specially academic instruction delivered in English or SADAI).

7.      describe the purpose, methods, state mandates, limitations, and technical concepts of language and content area assessment.


Crawford, James. (1995). Bilingual Education: History, Politics, Theory, and Practice.  (Third Edition).  Los Angeles, California: Bilingual Educational Services, Inc.

Diaz, Rico, L.T. and K.Z. Weed (1995)  The Crosscultural, Language, and Academic Development Handbook.  Mass.: Allyn and Boston.

Student Responsibilities and Evaluation


Class participation & attendance
Class reports

Total points possible


50 points
50 points

100 points

Every student is required to read an article from a book, professional journal, educational magazine or related source on the material assigned that week to the class.  Each student will then do a minimum of a two (2) page summary and general assessment and analysis of the article and present it to class, if selected.  Late papers are accepted; however, point(s) deduction(s) will occur.  The overall quality and length of the paper will be evaluated.  Each student will then turn in to the teacher each week’s assignment, and the student will also give each student in class a copy of his/her paper.    A student must do a minimum of 10 reports (5 points possible for each report) for a total potential number of 50 points.

A student is allowed one excused absence.  If a student is absent the first class meeting or did not enroll by the first class meeting, this first class meeting absence is counted as an excused absence.  Absences beyond the one allowed class absence will result in a five point deduction per class session.  If a student is late for class or if a student leaves class early, there may be a point(s) deduction.

Each paper is required to have the following information:

1.      Name of student (Gastopolos Giovanni)

2.      CLAD Course, Semester and year (Theories & Methods Class, Spring 2000)

3.      Identify the week of class  (Week Two: March 30, 2000)

4.      Title, author, and other bibliographic information including web site address if it is an Internet article.

Grading system:

A                     95-100 points

A-                                       90-94 points

B+                   87-89

B                      84-86

B-                                        80-83

C+                   77-79

C                     73-76

C-                                       70-72

D+                   67-69

D                     63-60

F                      59 and below

Class Schedule

Week 1

Overview of class- introduction to course, text and requirements.  Discussion of expectations for successful completion of course.  Discuss Glossary in Crawford p. 243-248, and review Sources & Suggested Readings, p. 277-300.

Week 2

Diaz-Rico & Weed: Chapter 4- English Language Development, Content Instruction, Bilingual Education.  p. 71-113.

Crawford: Introduction p. 11-18; Chapter 1- History: Bilingualism in America: A Forgotten Legacy, p. 20-38.   Class reports.

Week 3

Diaz-Rico and Weed: Chapter 5- Content Area Instruction, p. 114-143.

Crawford: Chapter 2- The Evolution of Federal Policy, p. 39-60.   Class reports.

Week 4

Diaz-Rico & Weed:  Chapter 6- Theories and Methods of Bilingual Education, p. 144-163.

Crawford: Politics: Chapter 3- English Only or English Plus? p. 62-80.

Crawford: Chapter 4- The Bennett Years, p. 81-100.   Class reports.

Week 5

Diaz-Weed & Weed: Organizational Models: What Works For Whom? p. 163-175. 

Crawford: Theory- Chapter 5- The Effectiveness Debate, p. 102-116   Class reports

Week 6

Diaz-Rico & Weed: Chapter 7- Language And Content Area Assessment, p. 176-190

Crawford- Chapter 6- Basic Research On Bilingual Education, p. 117-137.

Crawford: Chapter 7- Alternatives to Bilingual Education, p. 138-156.   Class reports

Week 7

Crawford: Practice- Chapter 8- Theory  Into Practice: The Case Studies Project, p. 158-175.
Crawford: Chapter 9- Indian Bilingual Education, p. 176-194.   Class reports.

Week 8

Crawford: Chapter 10- California: Coping With Diversity, p. 195-208.   Class reports.

Week 9

Crawford: Chapter 11: Two Way Bilingual Education, p.209-222.

Week 10

Crawford: Chapter 12- Language Policy and School Reform, p. 223-239.

Crawford: Title VII, p. 249-272, National Education Codes, p. 273-276, Arizona Proposition 106, p. 277-278.    Class reports.

Course Bibliography and References

A more detailed history of language policy in America can be found in James Crawford, Hold Your Tongue: Bilingualism and the Politics of “English Only” (Reading, Mass, Addison-Wesley, 1992).

A comprehensive history of bilingual education is Diego Castellanos, The Best of Two Worlds: Bilingual-Bicultural Education in the United States (Trenton, N.J. New Jersey State Department of Education, 1983).

For researchers of U.S. language policy, the starting is Heinz Kloss, The American Bilingual Tradition (Rowley, Mass. Newberry House, 1977) which is unmatched for detail about language minority schooling, particularly before 1968.

Regarding the issue of assimilation and “Americanization,” the classic work by Milton M. Gordon, Assimilation in American Life: The Role of Race, Religion, and National Origins (New York: Oxford University Press, 1964) is a must.

Barry McLaughlin summarizes and rebuts many of the popular misconceptions surrounding bilingualism in Second Language Acquisition in Childhood, 2nd Edition.  (Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1984).

One of the most comprehensive description of case studies and evaluations of bilingual education programs is Fred Tempes, “Cases Studies in Bilingual Education: Second Year Report (1984-85),” evaluation report to the U.S. Office of Bilingual Education and Minority Affairs Federal Grant #G008303723), May 1986.

Russell N. Campbell and Kathryn J. Lindholm of the Center for Language Education and Research (CLEAR) make a case for two-way bilingual education in Conservation of Language Resources, Educational Report Series, No. 6, Los Angeles: University of California, CLEAR, 1987.

A recent directory for two-way programs is Donna Christian and Cindy Mahrer, Two Way Bilingual Programs in the United States, 1991-1992.  Washington, D.C.: National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning, 1992, with supplements for 1992-93 and 1993-94.

Levine, D. and Adelman, M. (1982) Teaching writing in the ESL context.  In M. Celce-Murcia (Eds.)  Beyond Language: Intercultural Communication For English As A Second Language.  Englewood Cliffs.  NJ: Prentice Hall.

Minim, M and Kennedy, B.P. (Eds.) (1991) Language Issues In Literacy and Bilingual/Multicultural Education (Reprint Series No.22).  Cambridge: Harvard Educational Review.

Studies on Immersion Education: A Collection For United States Educators (Sacramento: California Department of Education, Office of Bilingual Bicultural Education, 1984.

Copyright © 2000, Learn with Ern Productions / Heritage of America
All Rights Reserved

Return to CLAD Resources
Return to USD, Kern County