University of San Diego,
Theories & Methods In English Language Development and
Content For The
- Educ. X558Y
This course is one of the four CLAD courses designed to prepare teachers
for the CLAD state examination, or one of four courses that meets the
requirement for the CLAD Certificate.
Students will examine the foundations of bilingual education in
the United States. The
course is also a survey of the historical development of bilingual
education , and it examines the political, legal and philosophical
aspects of bilingual education. English
development pedagogy and Specially Designed Academic Instruction
principles will also be explored. The
course also provides an overview of issues and strategies involved in
second language (English) development and content assessment.
Students in this course will develop sensitivity to multicultural
populations, and they will become more knowledgeable about the theories
and methods of bilingual education.
Students will also develop knowledge about theories and methods
for instruction in and through English.
Students will also become knowledgeable regarding language and
content area assessment.
Each student in this course will:
describe the foundations of bilingual education which include an
understanding of its’ historical background, its’ legal evolution,
and an understanding of perspectives on empowerment / deficit issues.
describe programs for limited English proficient students
including types of programs, program characteristics, instructional
strategies, and a theoretical framework of reference for intercultural
explain and describe teacher delivery for both English language
development and content instruction.
describe approaches with a focus on English language development.
explain communication elements of listening, speaking, reading
explain approaches with a focus on content area instruction
(specially academic instruction delivered in English or SADAI).
describe the purpose, methods, state mandates, limitations, and
technical concepts of language and content area assessment.
Crawford, James. (1995). Bilingual Education: History, Politics, Theory,
and Practice. (Third
Edition). Los Angeles,
California: Bilingual Educational Services, Inc.
Diaz, Rico, L.T. and K.Z. Weed (1995)
The Crosscultural, Language, and Academic Development Handbook.
Mass.: Allyn and Boston.
Responsibilities and Evaluation
Every student is required to read an article from a book, professional
journal, educational magazine or related source on the material assigned
that week to the class. Each
student will then do a minimum
of a two (2) page summary and general assessment and analysis of the
article and present it to class, if selected.
Late papers are accepted; however, point(s) deduction(s) will
occur. The overall quality
and length of the paper will be evaluated.
Each student will then turn in to the teacher each week’s
assignment, and the student will also give each student in class a copy
of his/her paper. A
student must do a minimum of 10 reports (5 points possible for each
report) for a total potential number of 50 points.
A student is allowed one excused absence. If a student is absent the first class meeting or did not
enroll by the first class meeting, this first class meeting absence is
counted as an excused absence. Absences
beyond the one allowed class absence will result in a five point
deduction per class session. If
a student is late for class or if a student leaves class early, there
may be a point(s) deduction.
Each paper is required to have the following information:
Name of student (Gastopolos Giovanni)
CLAD Course, Semester and year (Theories & Methods Class,
Identify the week of class (Week
Two: March 30, 2000)
Title, author, and other bibliographic information including web
site address if it is an Internet article.
of class- introduction to course, text and requirements.
Discussion of expectations for successful completion of course. Discuss
Glossary in Crawford p. 243-248, and review Sources & Suggested
Readings, p. 277-300.
Crawford: Introduction p. 11-18; Chapter 1- History: Bilingualism in
America: A Forgotten Legacy, p. 20-38.
and Weed: Chapter 5- Content Area Instruction, p. 114-143.
Crawford: Chapter 2- The Evolution of Federal Policy, p. 39-60.
& Weed: Chapter 6-
Theories and Methods of Bilingual Education, p. 144-163.
Crawford: Politics: Chapter 3- English Only or English Plus? p. 62-80.
Crawford: Chapter 4- The Bennett Years, p. 81-100.
& Weed: Organizational Models: What Works For Whom? p. 163-175.
Crawford: Theory- Chapter 5- The Effectiveness Debate, p. 102-116
& Weed: Chapter 7- Language And Content Area Assessment, p. 176-190
Crawford- Chapter 6- Basic Research On Bilingual Education, p. 117-137.
Crawford: Chapter 7- Alternatives to Bilingual Education, p. 138-156.
Chapter 10- California: Coping With Diversity, p. 195-208.
Chapter 11: Two Way Bilingual Education, p.209-222.
Chapter 12- Language Policy and School Reform, p. 223-239.
Crawford: Title VII, p. 249-272, National Education Codes, p. 273-276,
Arizona Proposition 106, p. 277-278.
Course Bibliography and References
A more detailed history of language policy in America can be found in
James Crawford, Hold Your Tongue:
Bilingualism and the Politics of “English Only” (Reading, Mass,
A comprehensive history of bilingual education is Diego Castellanos, The
Best of Two Worlds: Bilingual-Bicultural Education in the United States
(Trenton, N.J. New Jersey State Department of Education, 1983).
For researchers of U.S. language policy, the starting is Heinz Kloss,
The American Bilingual Tradition (Rowley, Mass. Newberry House,
1977) which is unmatched for detail about language minority schooling,
particularly before 1968.
Regarding the issue of assimilation and “Americanization,” the classic work by Milton M. Gordon, Assimilation in American Life: The Role of Race, Religion, and National Origins (New York: Oxford University Press, 1964) is a must.
Barry McLaughlin summarizes and rebuts many of the popular misconceptions
surrounding bilingualism in Second
Language Acquisition in Childhood, 2nd Edition.
(Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1984).
One of the most comprehensive description of case
studies and evaluations of bilingual education programs is Fred Tempes,
“Cases Studies in Bilingual Education: Second Year Report
(1984-85),” evaluation report to the U.S. Office of Bilingual
Education and Minority Affairs Federal Grant #G008303723), May 1986.
Russell N. Campbell and Kathryn J. Lindholm of the Center for Language
Education and Research (CLEAR) make a case for two-way bilingual
education in Conservation of
Language Resources, Educational Report Series, No. 6, Los Angeles:
University of California, CLEAR, 1987.
A recent directory for two-way programs is Donna Christian and Cindy
Mahrer, Two Way Bilingual Programs
in the United States, 1991-1992.
Washington, D.C.: National Center for Research on Cultural
Diversity and Second Language Learning, 1992, with supplements for
1992-93 and 1993-94.
Levine, D. and Adelman, M. (1982) Teaching writing in the ESL context.
In M. Celce-Murcia (Eds.)
Beyond Language: Intercultural Communication For English As A
Second Language. Englewood
Cliffs. NJ: Prentice Hall.
Minim, M and Kennedy, B.P. (Eds.) (1991) Language Issues In Literacy and Bilingual/Multicultural Education (Reprint
Series No.22). Cambridge:
Harvard Educational Review.
Studies on Immersion Education: A
Collection For United States Educators (Sacramento: California Department of Education, Office of Bilingual
Bicultural Education, 1984.